Austerity creates suffering for the people as well as shrinking rather than growing their countries' economies.
The next few years will be filled with opportunity, as well as danger. Anti-austerity forces are beginning to resist the "troika." But so, too, are parties on the right.
NATO recently wrapped up the largest war games in Eastern Europe since World War II. Some say the alliance's actions are pushing Europe toward a new Cold War.
The immediate winners of the Brexit vote appear to be the anti-immigrant right wing in Britain and across Europe.
Elections have just concluded after a campaign dominated by the issue of reunification between the island's Greek and Turkish communities.
On June 23, the European Union will be put to the test when Britain - its second-largest economy - votes on whether to stay in or bail out.
It is a hundred years since some 750 men and women threw up barricades and seized strong points in downtown Dublin, to be joined by maybe a thousand more.
Over the past year, left and center-left parties have taken control of two European countries and hold the balance of power in a third.
It is not the refugees who are posing the threat, but rather, those forces whose goals and methods all too vividly recall the rise of fascism 85 years ago.
In France, as in other European countries, the most common interpretation of the right's surge is hostility toward immigrants, refugees and foreigners in general.